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Carnivorous Plants in the Wilderness
by Makoto Honda
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Glossary

Glossary  in alphabetical order

A

   
abaxial
   cf. adaxial
  underside of a leaf, facing away from the stem.
actinomorphic
   cf. zygomorphic
  radially symmetric flowers
action potential   an electrical pulse (with a duration of 1ms or so) that travels along the cell membrane, transmitting a signal from one cell to another, to coordinate some activities. The nervous system of animals use action potentials for communication between neurons and to transmit information to other tissues. Many plants generate action potentials also. In plants, the generation of an action potential is associated with the flow of potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca++), while in animals the flow of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) are used. An action potential  is caused by positive ions moving in and out of a particular cell.....
adaxial
   cf. abaxial
  upper side of a leaf, facing toward the stem.
anthesis   period during which a flower is receptive for fertilization.
arachnid   joint-legged creatures such as spiders, scorpions, ticks and mites.
arthropod   the largest phylum of animals (including insects, arachnids, crustaceans, etc) characterized by their segmented body and chitinous exoskeleton.

C

   
chasmogamous
   cf. cleistogamous
  flowers that open normally to allow for pollination.
chitin   main component of the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as insects.
cleistogamous
   cf. chasmogamous
  flowers that never open (but self-pollinate).
commensal    
crustacean   majority are aquatic, such as crabs, lobsters, shrimp.
cultivar   "cultivated variety" registered with a registration authority, such as International Carnivorous Plants Society.   

D

   
decumbent   leaf reclining on the ground.
digestion   process whereby complex molecules are broken down into smaller structures for absorption  (carried out in the digestive system, usually in animals).  
dioecious
   cf. monoecious
  having male and female flowers on separate plants.
Diptera   insect order characterized by the presence of a single pair of wings, including true flies, mosquitoes, gnats, midges.

E

   
endemic   native only to a certain region.
ensiform   having a shape of a sword.
entire   having a smooth edge without teeth or lobes.
enzyme   protein that accelerates a specific chemical reaction (without altering itself).
epiascidiate   type of leaf whose upper surface curls around and fuses to form a tube.
epidermis
   cf. mesophyll
  the outermost layer of cells covering a leaf surface.

G

   
gemma   bud-like structure formed in the rosette center, as in pygmy sundews, that develop into a new plant (pl. gemmae).

H

   
herbaceous   plants with a non-woody stem, dies back every year. A herb.
hibernaculum   protective buds made of small, tightly packed leaves which tolerates cold and desiccation (pl. hibernacula).  
homology   similarity in characters due to common ancestry.  
hydrolytic   enzyme which acts only in the presence of water. 

I

   
inflorescence   cluster of flowers on a stalk.
Inquiline   animals that use another species for housing without hurting the host, a la microorganisms in the pitcher plant pool.
Invertebrate
  cf. vertebrate
  animals without backbones.

L

   
lamina
   cf. petiole
  leaf blade.

M

   
mesophyll
   cf. epidermis
  cells in the leaf interior that perform photosynthesis.
monoecious
   cf. dioecious
  having separate male and female flowers on the same plant.

N

   
nastic
   cf. tropistic
  movement toward a predetermined direction. 

O

   
ontogeny   developmental change of an organism. 

P

   
panicle   compound raceme.
pedicel
   cf. peduncle
  short stem holding each flower in an inflorescence.
peduncle
   cf. pedicel
  main stalk of an inflorescence.
petiole
   cf. lamina
  stalk of a leaf leading to the leaf blade.
phyllodia   flattened leaf without a pitcher tube. 
phylogeny   evolutionary history of a species. 
prostrate   leaf lying flat.
protandrous
   cf. protogynous 
  flowers in which the anthers release the pollen before the stigma becomes receptive.
protogynous 
   cf. protandrous
  flowers in which the stigma is receptive before the pollen is shed from the anthers.  
protozoa   single-celled, the most abundant animals in the world in number and in biomass, play a vital role in controlling bacteria.

R

   
raceme   unbranching inflorescence, with each flower attached by a pedicel, the oldest flower toward the base.
rhizome   horizontal stems of a plant (usually underground).
rotifer   microscopic multi-celled animals (less than 1000 cells), possessing a hair-like cilia at the body front for locomotion.

S

   
stipule   small appendages at the base of the petiole of leaves.
stolon   horizontal shoots (often underground) that form a new plant at the tip, also called runners. 
sympatry   occurring in the same habitat.

T

   
taxonomy   discipline of biology to classify organisms.
tropistic
   cf. nastic
  movement in the direction having a correlation to the origin of stimuli.

V

   
vertebrate
  cf. invertebrate
  animals with backbones, including many large animals, such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.

Z

   
zygomorphic
   cf. actinomorphic
  bilaterally symmetric flowers.

 

Glossary  -  by category
 
ANIMAL

   
vertebrate   animals with backbones, including many large animals, such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.
invertebrate   animals without backbones.
arthropod   the largest phylum of animals (including insects, arachnids, crustaceans, etc) characterized by their segmented body and chitinous exoskeleton.
arachnid   joint-legged creatures such as spiders, scorpions, ticks and mites.
chitin   main component of the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as insects.
Diptera   insect order characterized by the presence of a single pair of wings, including true flies, mosquitoes, gnats, midges.
crustacean   majority are aquatic, such as crabs, lobsters, shrimp. .
rotifer   microscopic multi-celled animals (less than 1000 cells), possessing a hair-like cilia at the body front for locomotion.
protozoa   single-celled, the most abundant animals in the world in number and in biomass, play a vital role in controlling bacteria.
commensal    
Inquiline   animals that use another species for housing without hurting the host, a la microorganisms in the pitcher plant pool.

FLOWER

   
anthesis   period during which a flower is receptive for fertilization.
protandrous   flowers in which the anthers release the pollen before the stigma becomes receptive.
protogynous    flowers in which the stigma is receptive before the pollen is shed from the anthers.
chasmogamous   flowers that open normally to allow for pollination.
cleistogamous   flowers that never open (but self-pollinate).
actinomorphic   radially symmetric flowers.
zygomorphic   bilaterally symmetric flowers.
inflorescence   cluster of flowers on a stalk.
peduncle   main stalk of an inflorescence.
pedicel   short stem holding each flower in an inflorescence.
raceme   unbranching inflorescence, with each flower attached by a pedicel, the oldest flower toward the base.
panicle   compound raceme.
dioecious   having male and female flowers on separate plants.
monoecious   having separate male and female flowers on the same plant.

LEAF

   
abaxial   underside of a leaf, facing away from the stem.
adaxial   upper side of a leaf, facing toward the stem.
entire   having a smooth edge without teeth or lobes.
petiole   stalk of a leaf leading to the leaf blade.
lamina   leaf blade.
stipule   small appendages at the base of the petiole of leaves.
epiascidiate   type of leaf whose upper surface curls around and fuses to form a tube.
ensiform   having a shape of a sword.
phyllodia   flattened leaf without a pitcher tube.
epidermis   outermost layer of cells covering a leaf surface.
mesophyll   cells in the leaf interior that perform photosynthesis.
hibernaculum   protective bud made of small, tightly packed leaves which tolerates cold and desiccation (pl. hibernacula).
prostrate   leaf lying flat.
decumbent   leaf reclining on the ground.

STEM

   
gemma   bud-like structure formed in the rosette center, as in pygmy sundews, that develop into a new plant (pl. gemmae).
stolon   horizontal shoots (often underground) that form a new plant at the tip, also called runners.
rhizome   horizontal stems of a plant (usually underground).
herbaceous   plants with a non-woody stem, dies back every year. A herb.

MOVEMENT

   
nastic   movement toward a predetermined direction.
tropistic   movement in the direction having a correlation to the origin of stimuli.
action potential   an electrical pulse (with a duration of 1ms or so) that travels along the cell membrane, transmitting a signal from one cell to another, to coordinate some activities. The nervous system of animals use action potentials for communication between neurons and to transmit information to other tissues. Many plants generate action potentials also. In plants, the generation of an action potential is associated with the flow of potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca++), while in animals the flow of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) are used. An action potential is caused by positive ions moving in and out of a particular cell.....

OTHERS

   
endemic   native only to a certain region.
sympatry   occurring in the same habitat.
taxonomy   discipline of biology to classify organisms.
phylogeny   evolutionary history of a species.
ontogeny   developmental change of an organism.
homology   similarity in characters due to common ancestry.
cultivar   "cultivated variety" registered with a registration authority, such as International Carnivorous Plant Society.   
digestion   process whereby complex molecules are broken down into smaller structures for absorption  (carried out in the digestive system, usually in animals).
enzyme   protein that accelerates a specific chemical reaction (without altering itself).
hydrolytic   enzyme which acts only in the presence of water.


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